WHAT IS A SENTENCE?
A sentence is a group of words that makes a complete sense and thought.
HOW MANY KINDS OF SENTENCES ARE THERE?
I. Simple Sentences: A Simple sentences contain only one clause and may be as short as one word. They have a subject and a predicate, and they may include modiﬁers.
- Kamal goes.
- John eats pizza.
Each of these sentences has the same simple structure. Length doesn’t necessarily impact the structure, although it is often a factor.
II. Interrogative Sentence: The sentence that are used to ask questions are called Interrogative Sentence or Question Sentence.
Questions, or interrogative sentences, ask who, what, where, why, which, or how. Beginning a sentence or independent clause with one of these words is almost always a sure indicator of a direct question.
- What is your name?
- When will you come?
- Who are you?
- Where did you get this?
- Why did she leave?
- How are you?
III. Imperative Sentence: The sentence which expresses order, command, advice, request, suggestion or instruction is called Imperative Sentence.
Commands, or imperative sentences, make direct requests and prohibitions. They consist of predicates that are inﬁ nitive verbs but have no explicit subjects.
- Earn good name
- Call the doctor, please
- Take rest
- Wait a minute
- Do not go there
- Stop talking
IV. Exclamatory Sentence: The sentence which expresses some strong feeling or emotion such as contempt, wonder, surprise, sorrow, joy etc. are called Exclamatory Sentence.
Exclamations are usually expressions of excitement or any other burst of emotion. They are similar to commands and interjections, but they can also be complete sentences.
- How date you!
- Hurrah! I have won the contest
- What a beautiful flower
V. Fragments: Fragments are incomplete sentences. Every sentence must have at least one main clause, which contains an independent subject and verb and expresses a complete thought.
- Kamal wants to go. But can’t
- I went to the concert. Which is why I have a headache.
- Although David wants to go, he can’t.
SOME IMPORTANT NOTES:
USE OF PUNCTUATION
Punctuation is a set of universally accepted, standardized marks such as periods, commas, and question marks that help clarify the meaning of a sentence or structural portions of writing.
||Period / Fullstop
||Spanish question marks (open and close)
||Spanish exclamation marks (open and close)
||Single quotation marks (open and close)
||Double quotation marks (open and close)
||Parentheses (open and close)
||Brackets (open and close)
||Braces (open and close)
WHAT IS A POSSESSIVE CASE?
In general, possessives require nothing more than an apostrophe and sometimes
an additional -s. For all singular words, add -’s to the end. Even if the word ends in -s, -x, or -z, the most common usage adds -’s to the ending.
A noune or a pronoun, when it is used to show ownership or possession, authority, kind, origin etc., it is said to be in the Possessive or Genitive Case.
||The 1980s’ tech boom
||2009’s midterm elections
Nouns are the building blocks of sentences. A noun is a word used to represent general classes of people, places, and things or something a bit more intangible, such as ideas.
What is a noun?
A noun is a word that identifies a name of the person, place, thing, or idea.
COMMON NOUNS :
People: Brother, teacher, doctor, gardener.
Places: Town, school, hospital, yard.
Things: Shoe, pizza, radio, house.
Ideas: Faith, beauty, truth, goodness.
A pronoun is a word that replaces either a noun or another pronoun. Pronouns are used to avoid repeating the same word. Pronouns can also be used in place of a noun that has already been identified and is understood without repeating it or replacing it.
What is a Pronoun?
Pronoun is a substitution word used in place of the nouns and noun phrases they represent.
Without pronouns: The girl told the girl’s sister that the girl was going to run away.
With pronouns: The girl told her sister that she was going to run away.
I. Nominative Case
II. Accusative Case
III. Instrumental Case
IV. Dative Case
IV. Ablative Case
IV. Genitive Case
V. Locative Case